Music Industry Musings

Month: September, 2016

How do we solve Britain’s ‘boring’ music scene?

Much has been made about the stagnant UK charts and dearth of British breakthrough acts in 2016. And rightfully so, by this time last year, James Bay, Years and Years and Jess Glynne were success stories from the British isles. Debut albums released in 2014 from Sam Smith and George Ezra were still topping the charts, and Ed Sheeran was doing so with his second, as were third albums from Florence and the Machine and Mumford & Sons. This year we’ve had first albums from Jack Garratt and Blossoms do fairly well plus Zayn, but he’s been launched from the US. 

Everything is cyclical, and this year is without a doubt a time when albums from US acts have overshadowed everything else worldwide. But what about The 1975? They hit #1 in the US and UK with their second album and French act Christine & the Queens has truly broken with her debut thanks to a high-profile TV performance and Glastonbury slot. Entrepreneurial grime artist Skepta won the Mercury Music Prize for his fourth record, and Ed Harcourt, who has been independently managed and signed by Sean Adams for four years, got a deal with Polydor to release his excellent seventh album Furnaces to much admiration. Also: Adele. I don’t think it’s a fluke all those artists have independent roots.

This isn’t about to turn into a major label bashing argument. It looks glamorous from the outside but it’s really hard to work at a major. The pressure is always high thanks to the constant presence of cash counters at the top, and those in charge are doggedly competitive with rivals. Being creative is a risk, and requires a lot of time. Scouts have weekly meetings to come up with the goods.

A&Ring at a major label is the equivalent of requiring a very fragile flower to grow into its full potential overnight. And if it doesn’t, you go into work expecting to be fired. It’s a lot easier to sign something that past evidence has proved popular than it is to spend someone else’s money on something that’s different and may or may not be interesting to the wider public. Because then you’ll probably get to keep your job and make sure you and your kids are warm, fed and clothed.

The business isn’t swimming in money like it was pre-digital revolution when the likes of Culture Club, Rolling Stones, David Bowie, Oasis, the Beatles and Spice Girls were making history. So the focus has shifted from creativity and innovation to clawing back as much profit as possible by appealing to the mass market. The mass market loves radio-friendly pop tunes from Justin Bieber, Adele and Drake. Says veteran manager Simon Napier-Bell: “One of the big changes you’ve seen in last 10 years is that record companies are run more and more by straight-laced people like accountants and lawyers who are thinking profit, not creative, so pop music gets a little bit more boring and less off the wall. Previous bosses were music fans who just happened to make their way to the top of the company.”

Independent labels (and managers), however, don’t have parent companies that expect them to grow profits year on year. There’s usually one guy (and it’s always been a guy) that genuinely loves music and has worked out a way of making enough money to keep him, his small team and artists afloat, thanks to private financing or luck. The 1975 are a prime example. Their manager Jamie Oborne has worked with them for nearly ten years, and signed them to his own label four years ago when every major turned them down (the music was apparently “confusing”). A licensing deal with Polydor was eventually signed prior to the release of their debut in 2013, which also hit #1.

Can you imagine Universal, Sony or Warner waiting as long as Oborne did for a debut album? They want it within a year or two. And The 1975 needed those six+ years of getting better at gigging and writing before they were ready to launch. As a result of financial support and more, that launch was absolutely incredible when it arrived. Let’s say the band didn’t have Oborne’s backing and that no-one else, including the majors, were interested. How would they have funded their lives? And had enough time, energy and space to learn to be great and creative if they’d had full-time jobs simultaneously? Charmingly, when Oborne offered his services as manager, they asked, “How much does it cost because we don’t have any money.” In the words of A$AP Ferg, you need capital to last in the game.

There’s talk about the lack of small venues being a reason for a decline in homegrown acts. I don’t think that’s it. I think it’s that the only musicians who can afford the time it takes to learn to be amazing and find out what they want to say over a long period of time – the real deal always write – are the rare few who have funding from somewhere, and, ideally, belief and patience from someone. That formula is not easy to find. There are the major label A&Rs who only want you when you’re ready, the indie execs who’ll sign you if you inspire them but may not be able to provide enough funding for you to quit working, and those rare finds like Oborne and Adams who’ve dedicated their lives to making something they believe in successful. Artists like Skepta exist with or without the industry.

Those who are lucky enough to get backing from a well-financed indie label face more obstacles when it comes to exposure. They then have to compete with major artists who have even bigger-moneyed marketing campaigns, worldwide infrastructure and relationships with radio stations, TV bookers and budget for pluggers. They’re hit again at streaming services where the three majors own their own playlist brands and there’s routine reports of major label dominance on Spotify’s own curated lists. On its All New All Now list playlist this week, for example, seven out of 30 entries are indie. That’s 23%. It’s not because the majors are making better quality music.

So what’s the answer to Britain’s ‘music problem’? We can tell the major label A&Rs to have more patience and take more risks, and I think they’d say they’d love to do that. But that’s only going to happen if the culture of their company gets a complete revamp. Firstly, the diversity problem must be addressed immediately. That can only happen if you literally throw out all the staff and start again with a new recruitment procedure that isn’t influenced by unconscious bias and unpaid internships. Many different perspectives from all walks of life would bring music to the public that they didn’t even know they liked that isn’t ‘boring’ pop or dance. Case in point: Christine & the Queens first broke in France, and her French label head then used his UK operation to do the same in Britain.

Strict targets are never going to be conducive to the creative process, and a nurturing approach to signees needs to be adopted and adhered to at all times. One or two acts per A&R at any one time is enough. The indie community must then be given equal opportunities for radio play, streaming playlisting, TV appearances, sync deals and other kinds of promo. In a perfect world, the indies and majors work together to share data and expertise. It’s a tall order, isn’t it. And it’s the major label shareholders who can make it happen. I’m just not sure how much they care.

The state of music and mind

This feature was written for autumn 2016 edition of The Musicians’ Union magazine

The lifestyle of a working musician may not afford much time for mental healthcare but evidence suggests music-makers should exercise extra caution when it comes to matters of the mind. Late night gigs and the temptations they bring, hectic touring schedules, and the transition from stage to sofa all take a tool on the human psyche, not to mention the unique pressures of working in the creative industries.

In 2014, a survey by Help Musicians UK highlighted that of 552 respondents, 67% had, on occasion, suffered from depression or other psychological problems and 75% had experienced performance anxiety. In terms of the general British population, around in one four people will experience a mental health problem during their lifetime. Other stats are sparse, and that’s a gap Help Musicians is aiming to help bridge with its mental health and music academic study, Can Music Make You Sick?, which was launched at The Great Escape in May. The report will explore how the music industry can have a negative impact on the mental health of those working within it, and look into ways of solving that.

A range of mental health problems cover multiple musical disciplines. Common problems include performance anxiety and the expectation of perfectionism resulting in obsessional worries, depression due to loneliness felt while away from family and friends on tour, as well as the mental effects of succumbing to what can easily turn into a damaging lifestyle of little sleep, junk food, alcohol and drugs while traveling. And the ‘tortured artist’ cliche can prevent both sufferers and their support network from taking any complaints seriously, as could the perceived ‘glamorous’ reality of a musician. 

Musician Rob Harvey had a hard time touring while a member of his previous band, The Music, and turned to alcohol as a result. “It was after a year or two of touring that signs of anxiety started to show,” he said in a film produced by Vice and shown at The Great Escape. “Every night you’d be hitting the drink, [and looking for] girls. The attention on stage makes you feel powerful but it gives you a false sense of self.

“I could never get to the point of being comfortable in social situations, I’d only feel like everybody else at two drinks in. That’s a slippery slope because two drinks soon lead to more. I’d wake up feeling bad every day, and my only remedy was to keep drinking.”

Dr Carol Chapman, a psychology practitioner for the British Association of Performing Arts Medicine, works with a lot of musicians in the classical arena – a genre where the use of Beta Blockers to enhance performance has long been documented. “The ethos of learning an instrument classically, doing grades and getting a job in an orchestra, chamber or choral group requires people to know repertoire very well, with teachers typically quick to point out mistakes and being perhaps less aware of the value of being positive and encouraging,” she says. “It results in a degree of performance anxiety and unhelpful perfectionism.” 

So what help is there available? Help Musicians can help pay for treatment and therapy and refer people to relevant expert charities, predominantly Mind. BAPAM offers free one-to-one advice and clinical service assessments through its national programme of education and training, with psychologists offering their services at a comparatively low rate. Musicians can also get funding for specialist medical help from other organisations like PRS and The Royal Society of Musicians. Elsewhere, new charity Music Support provides a 24/7 helpline manned by volunteers and professionals offering help and support for individuals in any area of the music industry suffering from alcoholism, addiction, emotional or mental health issues.

BAPAM Chief Executive Deborah Charnock recently called for a creators’ health service, to provide more performers with career-specific medical advice. Which begs the question, who would provide the funding? “Ideally, it should be available through NHS/social services but these are stretched, so it’s now down to charities and private providers,” she answers. “However, employers and those who benefit commercially from the industry have some responsibility not only to fund services, but to provide conditions that foster good physical and mental health.”

During her time as Shadow Cabinet Minister for Mental Health, Luciana Berger was trying to get government to recognise that mental health should be a cross-governmental responsibility, and not just dealt with from the Department of Health. “I want to see the business department work with employers, the education department working with schools and the Department for Culture, Media and Sport working more closely with community organisations and so on,” she says. “In that way, key industries, such as the music industry that touches the lives of millions of people, could be supported to improve people’s mental health. Unfortunately, there simply wasn’t enough of that innovative thinking from the government.

“It is important for us to see a culture change, led by government, that supports organisational initiatives and encourages them to link up with community organisations. BAPAM does great work with the Musicians’ Union and others, but it needs the support and encouragement from government to do more.”

For musicians with management and label deals, the consensus at The Great Escape was that those companies should be helping to alleviate stress by advising on money management, health and lifestyle, and offering financial support if needed for rehab or therapy. There are also a number of self-help measures musicians can take to reduce the chance of being hit with bad mental health in future.

Creative consultant Clare Scivier, who has been coaching musicians for eight years, advises: “If you’ve had mental health issues in your family or you know that you have triggers, before you sign a contract or get involved with anyone on the business side, I would recommend having some cognitive behavioural therapy, neuro-linguistic programming or coaching to understand why you are going into this, and what kind of people you need to be working with.”

Creating an alter ego is one of the measures Scivier schools musicians to adopt so they can better manage the ups and downs of a life spent performing. “The performer is different to the person who buys sandwiches and does normal functioning things. If you build a healthy avatar that you step into for performance, it makes your normal life a safer place to go back to once you’ve finished,” she explains. Some of Scivier’s other tips include being in a safe and comfortable environment when writing or practicing music, which can help alleviate pressure, and remembering to loosen up and breathe when faced with potentially stressful situations.

But perhaps the most important step to take is communication. When Harvey was suffering, he told his management and they advised he speak to someone professional about how he was feeling. He took a train to London and went to a mental health care facility which set him on the road to recovery. 

“One of the most amazing things about being there was sharing what I was going through with people openly,” he remembers. “It felt good that I wasn’t the only person feeling those things. To recover you have to understand at some point that you’re broken. If I could give the 18-year-old version of me any advice, it would be to speak sooner.”